Although bus drivers carry the responsibility of caring for the safety of dozens of passengers at once, they are still only human. Unfortunately, this means they are prone to human errors, just like other motorists. Bus drivers can be under time constraints and pressure to reach a destination according to a schedule, leading them to drive longer than they safely should. Driver drowsiness accounted for an estimated 846 fatalities in 2014
. The true number is most likely higher, as it is difficult to tell if drowsiness contributed to a crash. Another major factor driving bus accident rates is driver distraction. If a driver takes his or her eyes off the roadway to send a text, check email, or even dial a phone, it can put the lives of the passengers at risk. In New York, drivers cannot use handheld mobile devices for any reason while driving. Commercial drivers have additional restrictions, making it illegal to make a phone call or text while the bus is temporarily stationary. Despite these laws, many bus drivers let their phones distract them while driving, leading to terrible accidents. Driving under the influence (DUI) and driving while intoxicated (DWI) also contributes to bus accidents annually. Commercial drivers are guilty of DUI if caught driving with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level of 0.04% or higher in New York – half the legal amount for noncommercial motorists. Drivers under the influence of drugs may also be responsible for damages if the drug use contributed to the crash. Companies that own tour buses, private buses, school buses, charter buses, and party buses are legally responsible for the maintenance of their vehicles and the proper training of drivers. If a maintenance-related parts malfunction or improper driver training causes an accident, the courts can hold the bus company responsible. Victims of a bus accident can sue the driver, the company responsible for the driver, and/or the government in charge of the bus. For example, in the event of an accident on a public bus in New York, New York City Transit may be responsible.